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Calcium ion adsorption of Leucaena leucocephala wood biochar activated with coconut vinegar

Authors:

M. M. Udawatta,

University of Kelaniya, Kelaniya, LK
About M. M.
Department of Chemistry
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R. C. L. De Silva ,

University of Kelaniya, Kelaniya, LK
About R. C. L.
Department of Chemistry
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D. S. M. De Silva

University of Kelaniya, Kelaniya, LK
About D. S. M.
Department of Chemistry
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Abstract

A positive correlation has been reported recently among the number of Chronic Kidney Disease of Unknown Etiology (CKDu) patients and the levels of groundwater hardness. Hence, the need for a low cost and a simple domestic process to reduce the hardness of potable water is identified to improve living standards of low-income communities in these disease affected areas. Biochar has emerged as a low cost adsorbent for water treatment, because of its abundance and cost-effectiveness. This study was aimed to evaluate the ability of natural coconut vinegar, in activating Leucaena leucocephala wood biochar to be used in calcium ion (Ca2+) removal from potable water. Column tests showed a 1.7 fold increase of Ca2+ adsorption capacity and a 7 fold increase of Ca2+ retaining capacity upon the vinegar treatment. Batch studies matched with both Langmuir (R2 = 0.9761) and Freundlich (R2 = 0.9785) isotherm models. Ca2+ amount in solutions were measured using flame photometry. Ca2+ adsorption capacities of raw biochar and activated biochar determined by column tests ranged from 3.10-3.82 mg/g and 5.27-6.68 mg/g respectively while Ca2+ retaining capacities ranged from 0.16-0.22 mg/g and 1.28-1.4 mg/g respectively. Fourier transform infrared spectra, suggests hydration of the C-O-C bridges of the biochar surface introducing new -O-H groups and possible introduction of carbonyl/ ester/carboxylic functional groups to the biochar surface upon vinegar treatment. According to scanning electron microscopy porosity of the biochar remained stable after the vinegar treatment.
How to Cite: Udawatta, M.M., De Silva, R.C.L. and De Silva, D.S.M., 2021. Calcium ion adsorption of Leucaena leucocephala wood biochar activated with coconut vinegar. Journal of Science of the University of Kelaniya Sri Lanka, 14(2), pp.66–79. DOI: http://doi.org/10.4038/josuk.v14i2.8034
Published on 28 Dec 2021.
Peer Reviewed

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